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The 4 Layers of Cold Weather Clothing Everyone Should Know

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Learn to dress for winter with the best cold weather clothing for warmth and safety, including windshells and wicking layers to protect from wind and sweat.

In this post, we'll answer common questions about winter clothes and dressing for cold weather. Then we'll get into the four layers of cold weather clothing, and our picks for those layers. Finally, I'll wrap up with a Fortress Clothing review.

woman in winter clothes

Look things through, and decide which items are a worthwhile winter clothes investment for your safety and comfort.

Questions & Answers about Cold Weather Clothing

How should I dress for cold weather?

In general, the rule of thumb for living in a cold environment is to get insulation between you and the environment. Layers work well, because you can add or remove them to avoid sweating.

Why is sweat a problem? Some materials lose their insulation value when wet. Cold + damp = higher risk of hypothermia, which may be life threatening.

Plan for the conditions. If you plan on 20°F/-6°C, that is a lot different than windy and -20°F/-28°C.

Find out what “normal” conditions are for your area. Then make sure you have winter clothes that will protect you to that temp, and at least ten degrees lower. (Recent winters are breaking records in many areas.)

woman in winter clothes near snowy tree

Which fabric is best for cold weather?

If you chose synthetics, polypropylene wicks moisture away and insulates even when wet. For the insulating layer, look for down, Polarguard, Holofill, Thinsulate, or Primaloft.

Wool and silk are the best natural fibers for cold weather. Wool insulates better (even when wet) and is naturally odor resistant. It wicks moisture, but not quite as well as synthetics. Wool is also durable.

If it's not too cold and you are less active, silk is a good option. It retains odors, and is moderately wicking. A thin layer of silk can fit under almost any garment. Silk is less durable than wool.

Cotton is a poor choice, because it absorbs water and holds the water next to your skin.

Our Top Cold Weather Jacket Picks

  • Lowest priced general use parka Rothco Nylon N3B (newer style military parka) sizes run large. Nylon Poly Shell. Long, below waist.
  • Good general use parka Rothco Cotton N3B (older style military parka) sizes run large. August wore this in the military in -20f (-40f wind chill on the flight-line and was warm). This one has the older cotton exterior. Long, below waist. The nylon one is better if you are likely to get wet.
  • Mid priced more stylish version of the N3b. The Alpha industries N3b also comes in slim, regular and womens. Not as long below the waist.
  • Expensive stylish Northface McMurdo Parka III. Warm but not as warm as the ones above.

One of our readers notes:

“(Super fine merino sheep) wool & silk – worn correctly – way out perform synthetics (for extended wear). Wool is lousy in wind but is such a luxurious warmth when worn under a wind barrier outer. Silk is surprisingly warm for it's thinness. AND NEITHER SMELL!

I have worn them every day for weeks when hiking and no pong. They got a fair bit icky/sticky by the end, though. Synthetics can stink after just 1 days use.

Then there's angora: yak wool: musk ox & Possum fur/merino mix (from Kiwi land). These are all just gorgeously warm.  Even hemp can be okay. Synthetic materials require less TLC.”

What are the warmest clothes for winter? 

Layers are the best choice for staying warm in cold weather. Not only do the winter clothes themselves act as insulation, but the air between the layers insulates, too.

Scroll down to see suggestions for socks, underwear, middle layer, boots, jacket, hat, gloves and pants to consider depending on the conditions.

woman cleaning snow from solar panels

What is the best cold weather jacket?

The best cold weather jacket for you depends on your weather conditions and your activity.

Consider wind and wetness. Do you need insulation only, or do you need to block the wind, too? Are you likely to get wet or sweaty? Down doesn't work well when wet.

The section below titled “Insulation Layer” and “Shell Layer” explain the right jackets for different types of winter conditions.

Should thermals (layers) be tight or loose?

In general you want them fitted, but not tight. Exterior layers should also be fitted but not tight. You don't want a draft blowing up your parka or under your shirt to give you a chill.

cold weather clothing in use

The 4 Layers of Extreme Cold Weather Clothing (ECW)

These four layers of Extreme Cold Weather Clothing are adapted from the Field Manual for the U.S. Antarctic Program.

Here is a link to proper layering of extreme cold weather gear from the US Army: Cold Weather Clothing. Select the winter clothing layers you need for conditions.

1. Long Underwear

Your first layer should be your long underwear. It should fit snugly against your skin and be made of a nonabsorbent material. This layer works by wicking away water and keeping your skin dry.

(Personal note – I have thick calves and broad shoulders, so I usually buy men's long underwear, as the women's tends to be cut skimpy.)

Some long underwear options:

FX Womens MAXHEAT Fleece Long Johns Thermal Underwear

FX Mens MAXHEAT Fleece Compression Performance Long Johns Thermal Underwear

TSLA Blank Men's Microfiber Fleece Lined Top & Bottom Set

cold weather long underwear

2. Mid Layers

The next layers are important because they serve to absorb the moisture out of your long underwear and transport it to the environment through evaporation.

Look for synthetics, angora, or wool. Shirts, sweaters, and trousers are what you will likely be wearing when you are active.

Pay close attention to the fit, as the mid layers work by trapping air and preventing it from circulating and carrying away your body heat.

Some mid layer options include:

Women's Merino Wool Top

Woolx Men's Merino Wool Shirt

Men's Daybreaker Fleece Jacket

3. Insulation Layer

Thickness is warmth. If you are holding still or it's extremely cold, choose an outer garment with several inches of loft.

Down, Polarguard, Holofill, Thinsulate, and Primaloft are the types of insulation that the USAP uses in the ECW gear.

Some Down Coat Options:

Women's Thickened Down Jacket

Ultra-Lightweight Hooded Packable Down Puffer Coat with Travel Bag

Columbia Men's Lone Fir 650 Turbodown Hooded Jacket

Down loses most of its loft when wet and takes a long time to dry, so you must be careful to avoid getting down garments wet.

Some synthetic options:

Lined Quilted Holofill Vest Big and Tall USA Made

Women's Plus Size Knee-Length Arctic Parka

4. Shell Layer (Outer layer)

The most important part of your layering system, and the most used besides your long underwear, is your windshell.

Studies conducted by Recreational Equipment Co-Op show that in still air, windshells worn over any garment can add up to 25°F of warmth. In windy conditions, windshells can increase warmth by 50°F or more.

Personnel working near McMurdo get a windshell that is windproof but not waterproof. Because of the dry climate, fabrics without water resistance are superior, because they allow your perspiration to escape more easily.

Personnel working in the Peninsula area get a waterproof/breathable windshell because of the potentially wet conditions encountered there.

Some windshell options:

Little Donkey Men's Waterproof Rain Jacket Outdoor Lightweight Rain Shell

Outdoor Research Men's Horizon Jacket

Women's Scopi Windshell Jacket

flannel lined jeans

Cold Weather Pants

For working outside in cold, dry conditions, flannel lined jeans are a great option. For extreme cold, add layers such as insulated overalls or snowmobile bibs.

My sons and husband are the same size, so sometimes my husband finds his lined jeans missing from the closet. (It might be time to get our sons their own pairs for Christmas…).

Flannel lined jeans are great for 1 to 3 hours of light use. The problem is that they will hold moisture.

For any extended use, activity levels that get you sweaty, or high moisture conditions, the overalls or bibs are a better choice.

Some lined jean options include:

Carhartt Men's Relaxed Fit Straight Leg Flannel Lined

LEE Men's Fleece and Flannel Lined Relaxed-Fit Straight-Leg Jeans

Dickies Men's Relaxed Fit Flannel Lined Jean

Dickies Women's Flannel Lined Jean

Eddie Bauer Women's Boyfriend Flannel-Lined Jeans

Cold Weather Head Protection

While the old adage that you lose 40% of your heat through your head isn't accurate (the head is similar to other areas of the body for heat loss per square inch), you still need to protect your head and face in winter.

There are dozens of options to protect your head from cold weather, and layering is a good idea in extreme cold. You can wear a “ski mask” or balaclava with an aviator hat or with a full parka snorkel hood. Wool and silk remain good 1st layers, since they keep you warm even when damp with sweat.

When August was in the military in Duluth Minnesota with the air temp of -22°F with about -40°F windchill for a 6 hour flight-line guard shift, the bunny boots, parka and dual layer gloves (wool and leather) were critical to keeping warm. That same gear in +5°F would overheat you.

Any well rated N3B style parka will protect from extreme cold. The N3B style is based on a military parka, and has an integrated fur lined snorkel hood. We find the fur snorkel much warmer and more comfortable than the face mask options – if the loss of peripheral vision is acceptable.

Note: A full parka with a snorkel hood will be too warm unless the temperature is below -10°F or -23°C. For extreme cold (-30°F or -34°C and below), layer as noted above, with the parka as the shell. Use a ski-mask or balaclava under the parka hood.

young man holding snowball wearing winter clothes

The following are some suggestions for well-rated snorkel parkas and head protection for different temperature ranges.

Colder than -30°F (-34°C)(Extremely Cold/Blizzard)

Best – Fur lined snorkel integrated with a parka, and possibly an under layer balaclava.

Mens: Rothco Vintage N-3B Parka, $$

North Face McMurdo II or III  $$$

Womens: North Face Arctic Parka II $$ or Canada Goose Kensington Parka $$$

** note the parkas are quite expensive and as an outer shell with the base layers, they will keep you warm well to -40°F or -40°C or lower if you are active. For parkas get a size larger if you plan to wear a layer under it.

Best – Aviator hat with face mask (like a ski mask/balaclava)

Good – Balaclava with outer shell hood

Good – Real Fur Aviator Hat

0°F to -30°F (Very Cold)

BEST- Aviator Hat

BEST- Balaclava

Good- Merino Wool Beanie (stocking cap)

32°F to 0°F (cold)

BEST – Wool Beanie (stocking cap)

Good – Beanie (stocking cap)

Try different types of headgear on at your local sporting goods location if possible, so you have a feel for how different styles of headgear feel. Hooded jackets provide an extra layer of protection when winter gets bitter cold.

cold weather head protection balaclava
The boys modeling their new balaclavas back in 2014.

Cold Weather Clothing – Gloves and Mittens

For work that must be done without heavy gloves or mittens (for dexterity), use polypro glove liners. Fingerless alpaca wool gloves might also work. Alpaca wool is known for its warmth.

Gloves with pockets for hand warmers add heat without the bulk of the heavy duty gloves.

Some options include:

Heat Factory Gloves with Pop-Top Mittens, with Hand Heat Warmer Pockets, Blaze

eMitt Convertible Flip-top Mittens

For extreme cold, you will want mittens with warm liners, so they will need to be large enough for your gloved hand.

All Day -30°F and lower

Hank's Surplus Military Camouflage Arctic Cold Weather Leather Mittens & Wool Liners

Silk Liner

Black Diamond Mercury Mitts Cold Weather Mittens

All Day -10°F to -30°F

Burton Gore-tex Mitt

OZERO Ski Gloves

All Day 0° to -10°F

Northstar Mens Deerskin Buttersoft

All Day 32°F to 0°F

Dachstein Woolwear Extreme Warm Boiled Wool Alpine Mittens

Winter Socks and Slippers

Fortress clothing Hot Socks are an insulating foot cover that can be worn inside as a slipper or outside as a boot liner. They are not designed for outside wear as a stand alone item. (The name is “Hot Socks”, not “Hot Boots”.)

You can replace your existing boot liner, or wear them inside a larger muck boot. I've been wearing mine around the house as slippers because they don't make my feet sweat.

A reader recommended MukLuk slippers, saying that she's be very happy with the ones she received as a gift. (Most used Christmas gift ever.) MukLuks come in several different styles, including:

MUK LUKS Women's Magdelena Slipper, which cover the foot

Women's Tall Fleece-Lined Slipper Boot, which come further up the leg

Muk Luks Men's Slipper, which sits low on the ankle

Another reader recommended Warrior Alpaca Socks, saying that they kept her feet warm even though she has Raynaud’s Phenomena. Carhartt synthetic/wool blend socks are durable and breathe well. Arctic Extreme socks are fully synthetic and very well reviewed on Amazon.

See also: “Emergency Underwear and Socks – More Important Than You May Realize“.

fortress hot socks

Cold Weather Boots

Get a size larger than your regular shoe size to accommodate thicker socks or boot liners. If you plan to double layer socks, you might need two sizes larger. If possible, try on similar boots with the socks you plan to wear outside.

Amazon is good with size swaps for Baffin, so keep that in mind if you find it too large or too small. For 0°F to -10°F, any decent boots that will fit your feet while wearing thick wool socks will keep you warm enough – for colder temps, see below.

All Day -40°F or colder

White Military Bunny Boots —The white ones are theoretically good to -60°F. The black ones are rated to -20°F – they are NOT the same.We could not find the white ones except in military surplus stores so you will need to search. Buy one or two sizes smaller than the listed size. 

White Bunny Boots

Baffin Men's Impact Insulated Boot

Baffin Women's Ice Field Insulated Boot

All Day -20°F to -40°F

Baffin Women's Snogoose Winter Boot

Baffin Men's Control Max Insulated Boot

All Day -10°F to -20°F

Black Military Bunny Combat Winter Boots (these are not the same as the white ones – more in the -10°F to -20°F range)

The warmest boots August ever wore were the White Military Bunny boots or Mickey Mouse boots when he was in the USAF. We cant find them any more.

Fortress Clothing Extreme Cold Weather Gear

I was contacted by Dale Lewis of Fortress Clothing, who introduced me to some the best cold weather clothing I've encountered to date – Fortress Clothing.

Fortress winter clothing addresses a number of cold weather needs:

  • Staying warm when you get wet. Who hasn't gotten slopped by water or slush when out doing chores or even shoveling wet, heavy snow?
  • Staying comfortable in a range of temperatures. I hate it when you're going in and out of buildings and you work up a sweat inside and then get frozen clammy outside.
  • Having an extra layer of safety for power outages. When you're without heat for several days, your house may not freeze, but it sure isn't comfortable. This gear is light enough that you can wear it and still tackle day to day activities in comfort.
fortress clothing in use

How Does Fortress Clothing Work as Cold Weather Gear?

Fortress is a “base” or “mid-layer” cold weather garment that is designed to keep you warm – even when wet. It is designed also to be worn as a mid-layer/insulation garment (i.e.: underwear/Fortress mid-layer garment/outer shell appropriate for the conditions – typically NOT an insulated coat).

The engineered polymer used as the insulation in Fortress clothing is hydrophobic – it repels water. Fortress doesn’t hold on to water, or the perspiration your body puts out.

Water is 25X more conductive than air, so if your sweat, slush, cow slobber or anything else stays trapped next to your skin, the heat of your body is channeled through that moisture away from you.

Some other winter clothing options claim to be both waterproof and breathable in one garment – however, these garments are typically 100% waterproof but only 15% breathable. Once the pores in the garment are filled, they trap the dampness and you get cold.

When you pair up Fortress clothing with a windproof shell (not waterproof, as noted above in the Antarctica recommendations), Fortress covers the wet conditions and sweat and your windbreak covers the wind, and you are covered in comfort. Fortress has been worn from -30°F to 70°F.

Best Cold Weather Clothing - Fortress Cold Weather Gear insulates and wicks moisture away from your skin so you stay warm, dry and comfortable down to -30F.

In the video below, my son does the ice bucket challenge wearing Fortress clothing. He also spends a good deal of time with his hand submerged in ice water, and comes out without pruney fingers or chafing.

If you'd like to learn more about Fortress Clothing, please visit Fortress Clothing and watch more videos of their cold weather gear in action.

Choosing the Right Winter Clothes – How Can We Help You?

Where do you have the most difficulty staying warm? Is is out doing chores, hunting, snowmobiling, snowblowing, shoveling? Do you have any tips for keeping warm that you'd like to share? We'd love to hear from you and offer suggestions if you need help.

You may also find useful:

Don't forget to check out the Common Sense Preparedness page for a full list of our preparedness posts.

Thank you to Fortress Clothing for sponsoring this post.

cold weather clothing layers

P.S. Another option for coping with cold conditions is cold training, where you gradually adapt to cold temperatures without extra winter gear, like Dunc has been practicing. You can learn more about that here.

It's been used around the world as a health tonic for a very long time.

Young man in blue shirt cold training

Originally published in October 2015, updated in 2021.

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34 Comments

  1. I’m very glad to know about this. I have cold urticaria, an allergy to the cold. Mine is severe, going into anaphylactic shock when temps get very cold, especially if there’s wind. Often there are times in winter when I’m housebound for days or weeks. We also homestead which means I have to be inside while the rest of my family milk and do chores. Before the type or amount of clothing I’ve worn hasn’t made a difference in the attacks but I’d be willing to try…just have my epipen handy. 🙂

      1. If you are in the deep cold and can go “in and out” of warm shelters as they can do in the antarctic, you will probably have no problem with your advice. However, if you are going to be in cold weather for an extended amount of time, such as, dog sledding races, outdoor work (Alaskan pipeline), military, etc. you need to approach things a little differently.

        To wick away moisture, something has to absorb the moisture first. Think about cotton candle wicks… they absorb the liquid wax and it works it way up to the flame to burn. The same is true your clothing. The first layer of any cold weather gear should be “fish net” underwear. This layer allows your perspiration which is mostly vapor until it condenses against your body to get away from your body and go to the second layer which is an absorbent layer… like a cotton flannel shirt.

        This is quite common in northern Europe where people have done this for a century now. Once the sweat vapor is away from your body and absorbed or wicked by the cotton shirt, your bodies heat will heat up this layer of air next to the body and that heat will push the water out of the flannel shirt through the next layer which should be a loose fitting shirt or liner that allows the water vapor to go through it and not come in contact with your skin. Then the water vapor goes through the outside layer and into the surrounding environment. All of these garments can be purchased from a U.S. manufacturer named Wiggy’s. He makes garments that work and sleeping bags that work.

        Gore-tex is a problem in boots. Water goes through the Gore-tex membrane, but the membrane is so delicate that is has to be laminated (glued) in between two other layers of fabric. This glue fills in the majority of pores and prevents the vapor from going out. People can get blisters and chaffing when they use this footwear over long periods.

        1. I looked for some reviews on Wiggy’s gear. Unfortunately, not good. From http://www.trailspace.com/gear/wiggys/sleeping-bag/:

          From Ken M.

          “Just got off the phone with Jerry with a problem with a 0-degree bag not keeping me warm in 35-degree weather, So asked what he suggested, to my surprise no help with possibility of a problem with the bag. His fix was buy fishnet long underwear for 80 dollars. Too funny!

          OK, I will use this bag for my dog to sleep on and go buy a good bag.”

          Fishnet long underwear…that sounds familiar…

          And another reviewer:

          “Military style robustness, but not up to its temperature rating.

          Pros

          Dries quickly
          Robust

          Cons

          Fantasy temperature rating
          Loses loft as quickly as any plastic bag
          Useless service

          I had the flexible temperature range sleeping system: i.e. two bags that are made to fit into each other (the outer bag has an additional zipper to mate with the zip of the inner bag).

          The idea of a sleeping system was the reason I bought the bags. The inner bag was supposed to be warm down to -15°C or so: i froze my ass of around 0°C. The combination of both is rated -40°C (=-40°F). I quit a trip in -15°C, because it wouldn’t retain enough warmth to sleep in .

          I measued the loft and found it had diminished. Mr Wiggutow told me to wash and dry the bag and report the loft. I did as he said, but the result wasn’t convincing, so I sent the bag to their service.

          Their customer service told me, that the bags were well maintained. My question why it failed and why the everlasting loft apparently disapeared, was never answered.

          I have used down bags since then — on hiking/ skiing trips and on sea kayak trips throughout the year (e.g. arctic Norway in winter). Storing the down bags in an ultrasil drybag works perfectly for me, of course I’m using a tent.

          I gave the “sleeping system” away to a homeless guy freezing under a blanket. From time to time I see him in town, he seems to use the bag.

          The idea of the sleeping system is great. Usually the winter bag is the most expensive and the least used. If you can replace it by a combination of a summer and a moderate winter bag you gain in packability (two minor bags are more easily stored than a barrel of a winter bag), versatility, and price. The combination certainly weighs more than a single winter-bag.

          Compared to North Face Polarguard bags, the Wiggy bags seem to be a little more bulky, losing bulk as they lose loft.

          General usability is about the same as with any of the more known outdoor brands, no surprises here.

          Paying custom and transport to Europe these bags where on the expensive side… and considered their one year of usage I had, which was a failure in addition, I would not recommend to anyone to buy these bags.”

  2. Remember also to remove pierced earrings. The cold posts and wires in this temperature sensitive area are small and easy to overlook, but it will help keep you warmer if they are removed.

    1. I wear pierced earrings all winter and have never had any problem. It’s gets down to minus 40 to 50 sometimes here, in northern Canada so I would know… You probably need a decent touque (stocking hat) if your ears are getting that cold! I don’t wear dangly ones out for snowshoeing and the like – I guess those might get cold. But they will also get tangled in your clothing or get lost after getting tangled in the clothing. I lost a nice earring that way so I just wear studs for outdoor activities.

  3. I have been using the Fortress Clothing for the last 3 years, its the only base-layer i’ll wear now, i’m warmer than ever, more comfortable, and i don’t have to layer up. and if something bad happens when i’m out snowmobiling in the back country, i don’t have to worry about freezing to death. i love this stuff, i wont go anywhere without it, especially now with the Hybrid Hoodie that they made, i can wear it everywhere i go.

  4. I live in southern California but I have Raynaud’s Phenomena, which causes the blood vessels in my fingers and toes to over react to cold and constrict sometimes even if it’s in the low 70s depending on the humidity and my activity level. My dad was an avid skier so I was aware of ski socks and Gor-tex but they never worked for me as far as keeping my toes warm enough.

    I even went on a boot trying on spree at the local sporting good store. I told the guy “I know we’re in southern California and it’s 75F out but let’s pretend we’re in Antarctica. What do you have?” He brought out the insulated boots but those actually worsened the problem because the tight packing just squeezed the remaining blood out of my toes.

    I was thinking of getting some of those battery warmed socks even though I fear electrocution and catching on fire, until my roommate gave me a pair of alpaca wool socks that he had gotten for christmas the previous year, and never wore. Up until that point, every sock I had tried had been cotton, or some polyester acrylic blend….sheep wool is too itchy for me. The alpaca wool socks were soft were the only socks that have ever kept my feet warm. I was so amazed by them that alpaca wool is now my go to material for warmth, but I’m always looking for new things so I will check out the link to those Fortress hot socks. The alpaca wool socks were Warrior brand Outdoor terry lined alpaca socks if anyone is interested in. The only downsides are they wear through faster than cotton socks, and trap moisture a little more.

    1. I am very much the same way towards AC in the summer and anything, otherwise, below the mid to upper 70s. I live in WV and though I love the mountainous region during most seasons, the winter months hit me hard. Generally, I’m home bound and can rarely function during the winter. A lot of what I’ve read here I’ve done but to little avail.

    2. I am so glad you posted this! I too have raynauds and have been at a Lois for years. Reading your comment was like a breath of fresh air, thank you!

  5. Your post is helpful to begin thinking through what to wear and for what purpose. Thanks! I am an artist, and looking for the best gear for painting in frigid temps. I’m pretty much standing in one spot for 2-3 hours while painting a landscape (or snowscape). I thought of getting one of those insulated canvas body suits I’ve seen farmers and utility workers wear, but they are indeed heavy. I’m looking for a lightweight alternative, something that I can pull out of a backpack and slip over my clothes once I’ve arrived at my painting spot. Any suggestions? Thanks! ~Tim

    1. I’m familiar with getting cold standing in one place while painting – or at least while being painted. I used to be a nude model back in college up in Superior, Wisconsin. People would be wearing winter gear in the painting studio. That was cold. I got badly ill in January and refused to come back to work until they got a good space heater.

      For your situation, I’m thinking that the gear you’re describing (something like Carhartt bib overalls) would be a little awkward to work in. I think layers would be a better solution.

      Get warm boot a little on the large side – big enough that you can layer your socks with the wicking layer under, wool over and a hot pack in each boot so your toes don’t freeze. (Extremities lose blood flow first.)

      Layer through your legs and midsection – long underwear, thinsulate, windbreaker if needed to top.

      Hands – gloves with a pocket for handwarmers will be lighter and give you better dexterity than the bulkier gloves.

      Some options include:

      strong>Heat Factory Gloves with Pop-Top Mittens, with Hand Heat Warmer Pockets, Blaze

      eMitt Convertible Flip-top Mittens

      Fingerless alpaca wool gloves might also work. Alpaca wool is known for its warmth.

      Keep hand warmers in your pockets for backup if your hands start to get too cold.

  6. Hi worked out doors in germany doing(tree work) supplied with log johns , really great but at nights out on the razzle, really missed em.. and legs froze , so dont get to used to these kiddies unless you dont mind killing a bit of the night time passion . Nien,langer unter hosen ..ok ? Gareth uk.

        1. I was thinking more along the lines of “free range hen and two chicks”. Good for circulation… (How the gents tolerate it, I’ll never know. I don’t like wearing a skirt in cold weather.)

  7. I live in Ne Minnesota and I have Raynauds syndrome. I use fleece lined tights underneath my fleece lined pants and i wear a a wicking tank top with cuddleduds for my top and usually a fleece lined sweatshirt under my jacket. For my feet I use merino wool socks over my fleece lined tights in boots or shoes (depends how cold out). Depending on how cold it is, I also use the fleece lined good over my normal winter hat. For working outside, I wear wool gloves with another warm pair over it and a pair of rubber gloves over that. When it’s-50 wind chill, who cares about fashion as long as it works. LOL Great article!

  8. Surprised there was no mention of headware with pretty much everything else covered. I know the right hat makes all the difference in a Calgary winter!
    Couldn’t survive taking the dogs out withou having my Russian style rabbit hat made by Crown Cap of Winnipeg.
    Otherwise interesting article and comments.
    Thanks

    1. You’re right. We should add a section on that. Most of the time we just grab a regular stocking cap and flip hoods up, but we do have a few heavy duty flap caps, face masks, scarves and other headgear options.

  9. Protect your eyes. I wear clear wrap-around safety glasses even when there is no wind so my eyes don’t water as much, don’t sting and stay warm. Just cheap ones are fine. I have tried amber lensed ones for more contrast in snow but only when skiing, not for everyday work.

  10. Thank you for the great tips! Flannel lined jeans and alpaca socks…going to get those for sure. And good to know about the window liners. Appreciate you putting the time in to share these tips!

  11. Your blog has been very helpful in my research on keeping myself warm during the cold, winter months. I tend to be very sensitive to the cold. Add wind and wetness to the mix, makes it harder to stay warm. Thanks for the helpful tips.

  12. Thank you! My Arlington TX (Zone 8a, rarely gets below 20* , usual lows high 30* at the coldest in winter) son moved to Plymouth NH in August. He requested some warm layers. I ordered several of your suggestions. Thanks for the article. I appreciate it.

  13. In the winter I stay inside and dont do anything, I absolutely hate winter ! I was stationed in SE Asia in the military in the early 70s and now ask myself why o why didnt I stay there ? In the 80s I was stationed in Colorado, field duty in the winter was miserable, nne of the Army “cold weather” clothing kept me warm. Even Arizona has snow and cold. If I could afford it I would be outta here and go somewhere it never gets cold.

  14. Apart from the type of clothes you wear, you can also greatly improve their performance with the way you wear them. Make sure that all the openings at neck, wrists, waist and ankles are close fitting, but not tight. For a jacket a knitted wrist cuff sewn into the end of the sleeve makes a huge difference. So does some wrist warmers to either fill loose sleeve ends or wrapped around them. Wear a belt to prevent up drafts and tuck your longjohns into your socks and trousers into outer socks, if possible. Last, but no least, snip some of the elastic strandds of any sock elastic that is too tight. A high neckline also makes a big difference. All these also apply to indoor wear to keep the heating down a degree or two or if you live in a drafty house.

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