Learn to dress for winter with the best cold weather clothing for warmth and safety, including windshells and wicking layers to protect from wind and sweat.
In this post, we'll answer common questions about winter clothes and dressing for cold weather. Then we'll get into the four layers of cold weather clothing, and our picks for those layers. Finally, I'll wrap up with a Fortress Clothing review.
Look things through, and decide which items are a worthwhile winter clothes investment for your safety and comfort.
- Questions & Answers about Cold Weather Clothing
- The 4 Layers of Extreme Cold Weather Clothing (ECW)
- Cold Weather Pants
- Cold Weather Head Protection
- Cold Weather Clothing – Gloves and Mittens
- Winter Socks and Slippers
- Cold Weather Boots
- Fortress Clothing Extreme Cold Weather Gear
- How Does Fortress Clothing Work as Cold Weather Gear?
- Choosing the Right Winter Clothes – How Can We Help You?
Questions & Answers about Cold Weather Clothing
How should I dress for cold weather?
In general, the rule of thumb for living in a cold environment is to get insulation between you and the environment. Layers work well, because you can add or remove them to avoid sweating.
Why is sweat a problem? Some materials lose their insulation value when wet. Cold + damp = higher risk of hypothermia, which may be life threatening.
Plan for the conditions. If you plan on 20°F/-6°C, that is a lot different than windy and -20°F/-28°C.
Find out what “normal” conditions are for your area. Then make sure you have winter clothes that will protect you to that temp, and at least ten degrees lower. (Recent winters are breaking records in many areas.)
Which fabric is best for cold weather?
If you chose synthetics, polypropylene wicks moisture away and insulates even when wet. For the insulating layer, look for down, Polarguard, Holofill, Thinsulate, or Primaloft.
Wool and silk are the best natural fibers for cold weather. Wool insulates better (even when wet) and is naturally odor resistant. It wicks moisture, but not quite as well as synthetics. Wool is also durable.
If it's not too cold and you are less active, silk is a good option. It retains odors, and is moderately wicking. A thin layer of silk can fit under almost any garment. Silk is less durable than wool.
Cotton is a poor choice, because it absorbs water and holds the water next to your skin.
One of our readers notes:
“(Super fine merino sheep) wool & silk – worn correctly – way out perform synthetics (for extended wear). Wool is lousy in wind but is such a luxurious warmth when worn under a wind barrier outer. Silk is surprisingly warm for it's thinness. AND NEITHER SMELL!
I have worn them every day for weeks when hiking and no pong. They got a fair bit icky/sticky by the end, though. Synthetics can stink after just 1 days use.
Then there's angora: yak wool: musk ox & Possum fur/merino mix (from Kiwi land). These are all just gorgeously warm. Even hemp can be okay. Synthetic materials require less TLC.”
What are the warmest clothes for winter?
Layers are the best choice for staying warm in cold weather. Not only do the winter clothes themselves act as insulation, but the air between the layers insulates, too.
Scroll down to see suggestions for socks, underwear, middle layer, boots, jacket, hat, gloves and pants to consider depending on the conditions.
What is the best cold weather jacket?
The best cold weather jacket for you depends on your weather conditions and your activity.
Consider wind and wetness. Do you need insulation only, or do you need to block the wind, too? Are you likely to get wet or sweaty? Down doesn't work well when wet.
Should thermals (layers) be tight or loose?
In general you want them fitted, but not tight. Exterior layers should also be fitted but not tight. You don't want a draft blowing up your parka or under your shirt to give you a chill.
The 4 Layers of Extreme Cold Weather Clothing (ECW)
These four layers of Extreme Cold Weather Clothing are adapted from the Field Manual for the U.S. Antarctic Program.
Here is a link to proper layering of extreme cold weather gear from the US Army: Cold Weather Clothing. Select the winter clothing layers you need for conditions.
1. Long Underwear
Your first layer should be your long underwear. It should fit snugly against your skin and be made of a nonabsorbent material. This layer works by wicking away water and keeping your skin dry.
(Personal note – I have thick calves and broad shoulders, so I usually buy men's long underwear, as the women's tends to be cut skimpy.)
Some long underwear options:
2. Mid Layers
The next layers are important because they serve to absorb the moisture out of your long underwear and transport it to the environment through evaporation.
Look for synthetics, angora, or wool. Shirts, sweaters, and trousers are what you will likely be wearing when you are active.
Pay close attention to the fit, as the mid layers work by trapping air and preventing it from circulating and carrying away your body heat.
Some mid layer options include:
3. Insulation Layer
Thickness is warmth. If you are holding still or it's extremely cold, choose an outer garment with several inches of loft.
Down, Polarguard, Holofill, Thinsulate, and Primaloft are the types of insulation that the USAP uses in the ECW gear.
Some Down Coat Options:
Down loses most of its loft when wet and takes a long time to dry, so you must be careful to avoid getting down garments wet.
Some synthetic options:
4. Shell Layer (Outer layer)
The most important part of your layering system, and the most used besides your long underwear, is your windshell.
Studies conducted by Recreational Equipment Co-Op show that in still air, windshells worn over any garment can add up to 25°F of warmth. In windy conditions, windshells can increase warmth by 50°F or more.
Personnel working near McMurdo get a windshell that is windproof but not waterproof. Because of the dry climate, fabrics without water resistance are superior, because they allow your perspiration to escape more easily.
Personnel working in the Peninsula area get a waterproof/breathable windshell because of the potentially wet conditions encountered there.
Some windshell options:
Cold Weather Pants
My sons and husband are the same size, so sometimes my husband finds his lined jeans missing from the closet. (It might be time to get our sons their own pairs for Christmas…).
Flannel lined jeans are great for 1 to 3 hours of light use. The problem is that they will hold moisture.
For any extended use, activity levels that get you sweaty, or high moisture conditions, the overalls or bibs are a better choice.
Some lined jean options include:
Cold Weather Head Protection
While the old adage that you lose 40% of your heat through your head isn't accurate (the head is similar to other areas of the body for heat loss per square inch), you still need to protect your head and face in winter.
There are dozens of options to protect your head from cold weather, and layering is a good idea in extreme cold. You can wear a “ski mask” or balaclava with an aviator hat or with a full parka snorkel hood. Wool and silk remain good 1st layers, since they keep you warm even when damp with sweat.
When August was in the military in Duluth Minnesota with the air temp of -22°F with about -40°F windchill for a 6 hour flight-line guard shift, the bunny boots, parka and dual layer gloves (wool and leather) were critical to keeping warm. That same gear in +5°F would overheat you.
Any well rated N3B style parka will protect from extreme cold. The N3B style is based on a military parka, and has an integrated fur lined snorkel hood. We find the fur snorkel much warmer and more comfortable than the face mask options – if the loss of peripheral vision is acceptable.
Note: A full parka with a snorkel hood will be too warm unless the temperature is below -10°F or -23°C. For extreme cold (-30°F or -34°C and below), layer as noted above, with the parka as the shell. Use a ski-mask or balaclava under the parka hood.
The following are some suggestions for well-rated snorkel parkas and head protection for different temperature ranges.
Colder than -30°F (-34°C)(Extremely Cold/Blizzard)
Best – Fur lined snorkel integrated with a parka, and possibly an under layer balaclava.
Mens: Rothco Vintage N-3B Parka, $$
** note the parkas are quite expensive and as an outer shell with the base layers, they will keep you warm well to -40°F or -40°C or lower if you are active. For parkas get a size larger if you plan to wear a layer under it.
Best – Aviator hat with face mask (like a ski mask/balaclava)
Good – Balaclava with outer shell hood
Good – Real Fur Aviator Hat
0°F to -30°F (Very Cold)
BEST- Aviator Hat
Good- Merino Wool Beanie (stocking cap)
32°F to 0°F (cold)
BEST – Wool Beanie (stocking cap)
Good – Beanie (stocking cap)
Try different types of headgear on at your local sporting goods location if possible, so you have a feel for how different styles of headgear feel. Hooded jackets provide an extra layer of protection when winter gets bitter cold.
Cold Weather Clothing – Gloves and Mittens
Gloves with pockets for hand warmers add heat without the bulk of the heavy duty gloves.
Some options include:
For extreme cold, you will want mittens with warm liners, so they will need to be large enough for your gloved hand.
All Day -30°F and lower
All Day -10°F to -30°F
All Day 0° to -10°F
All Day 32°F to 0°F
Winter Socks and Slippers
Fortress clothing Hot Socks are an insulating foot cover that can be worn inside as a slipper or outside as a boot liner. They are not designed for outside wear as a stand alone item. (The name is “Hot Socks”, not “Hot Boots”.)
You can replace your existing boot liner, or wear them inside a larger muck boot. I've been wearing mine around the house as slippers because they don't make my feet sweat.
A reader recommended MukLuk slippers, saying that she's be very happy with the ones she received as a gift. (Most used Christmas gift ever.) MukLuks come in several different styles, including:
MUK LUKS Women's Magdelena Slipper, which cover the foot
Women's Tall Fleece-Lined Slipper Boot, which come further up the leg
Muk Luks Men's Mark Slipper, which sits low on the ankle
Another reader recommended Warrior Alpaca Socks, saying that they kept her feet warm even though she has Raynaud’s Phenomena. Carhartt synthetic/wool blend socks are durable and breathe well. Arctic Extreme socks are fully synthetic and very well reviewed on Amazon.
Cold Weather Boots
Get a size larger than your regular shoe size to accommodate thicker socks or boot liners. If you plan to double layer socks, you might need two sizes larger. If possible, try on similar boots with the socks you plan to wear outside.
Amazon is good with size swaps for Baffin, so keep that in mind if you find it too large or too small. For 0°F to -10°F, any decent boots that will fit your feet while wearing thick wool socks will keep you warm enough – for colder temps, see below.
All Day -40°F or colder
White Military Bunny Boots —The white ones are theoretically good to -60°F. The black ones are rated to -20°F – they are NOT the same.We could not find the white ones except in military surplus stores so you will need to search. Buy one or two sizes smaller than the listed size.
All Day -20°F to -40°F
All Day -10°F to -20°F
Black Military Bunny Combat Winter Boots (these are not the same as the white ones – more in the -10°F to -20°F range)
The warmest boots August ever wore were the White Military Bunny boots or Mickey Mouse boots when he was in the USAF.
Fortress Clothing Extreme Cold Weather Gear
I was contacted by Dale Lewis of Fortress Clothing, who introduced me to some the best cold weather clothing I've encountered to date – Fortress Clothing.
Fortress winter clothing addresses a number of cold weather needs:
- Staying warm when you get wet. Who hasn't gotten slopped by water or slush when out doing chores or even shoveling wet, heavy snow?
- Staying comfortable in a range of temperatures. I hate it when you're going in and out of buildings and you work up a sweat inside and then get frozen clammy outside.
- Having an extra layer of safety for power outages. When you're without heat for several days, your house may not freeze, but it sure isn't comfortable. This gear is light enough that you can wear it and still tackle day to day activities in comfort.
How Does Fortress Clothing Work as Cold Weather Gear?
Fortress is a “base” or “mid-layer” cold weather garment that is designed to keep you warm – even when wet. It is designed also to be worn as a mid-layer/insulation garment (i.e.: underwear/Fortress mid-layer garment/outer shell appropriate for the conditions – typically NOT an insulated coat).
The engineered polymer used as the insulation in Fortress clothing is hydrophobic – it repels water. Fortress doesn’t hold on to water, or the perspiration your body puts out.
Water is 25X more conductive than air, so if your sweat, slush, cow slobber or anything else stays trapped next to your skin, the heat of your body is channeled through that moisture away from you.
Some other winter clothing options claim to be both waterproof and breathable in one garment – however, these garments are typically 100% waterproof but only 15% breathable. Once the pores in the garment are filled, they trap the dampness and you get cold.
When you pair up Fortress clothing with a windproof shell (not waterproof, as noted above in the Antarctica recommendations), Fortress covers the wet conditions and sweat and your windbreak covers the wind, and you are covered in comfort. Fortress has been worn from -30°F to 70°F.
In the video below, my son does the ice bucket challenge wearing Fortress clothing. He also spends a good deal of time with his hand submerged in ice water, and comes out without pruney fingers or chafing.
If you'd like to learn more about Fortress Clothing, please visit Fortress Clothing and watch more videos of their cold weather gear in action.
Choosing the Right Winter Clothes – How Can We Help You?
Where do you have the most difficulty staying warm? Is is out doing chores, hunting, snowmobiling, snowblowing, shoveling? Do you have any tips for keeping warm that you'd like to share? We'd love to hear from you and offer suggestions if you need help.
You may also find useful:
- Winter Car Kit and Winter Vehicle Maintenance Checklist
- Emergency Heat During a Power Outage and other Winter Storm Preps
- 25 Cheap Ways to Keep Your House Warm in Winter
Don't forget to check out the Common Sense Preparedness page for a full list of our preparedness posts.
Thank you to Fortress Clothing for sponsoring this post.
P.S. Another option for coping with cold conditions is cold training, where you gradually adapt to cold temperatures without extra winter gear, like Dunc has been practicing. You can learn more about that here.
It's been used around the world as a health tonic for a very long time.
Originally published in October 2015, updated in 2021.