Water is Life
You can only survive for approximately 3 days without water, so water isn’t just necessary, water is life. In case of emergency, a reliable water supply is critical. Our water supply stops if power is interrupted due to storms, earthquakes or other events such as solar flares or grid overload due to high demand. Municipal water supplies could also be a likely “soft” target for terrorist attacks. Emergency water storage should be a part of any home emergency plan. (Note: Photo above shows part of our water storage next to home freeze dried food in Mylar bags.)
How Much Water Do I Need to Store?
FEMA recommends a three day supply with one gallon per person per day, half of that just for drinking. Age, physical condition, activity level, foods consumed and environmental conditions will influence those requirements. Hot, humid weather, illness, pregnancy and lactation, increased physical activity levels will all increase the amount needed. The Crisis Preparedness Handbook recommends 20 -30 gallons per person for a period of two to three weeks without water. This allows water for drinking, cooking, hygiene and some reserve. If you plan to rely heavily on dehydrated food, store an extra 2 to 5 gallons per person.
It's important that you find room for water storage, even if you are living in a condo or apartment. Consider 3 to 7 days of water bottles as a starting point. Store water containers under a bed, in the bottom of a closet or in a crawlspace.
Potable Water Storage Containers
Long Term Water Storage
- Traditional 5 gal Water Bottles
- WaterBrick stackable water storage
- 5 gal-Stackables water storage
- 7 gal water container not stackable
- 55 gal drinking potable water drum with pump and roller base
Emergency Water Storage
- A great emergency water storage solution is the $24.95 waterBOB or $26.70 65gal Emergency bathtub container (Note: the waterbob seems to be sold out a lot – and selling for $100+)
- Another bathtub water storage solution is the AquaPodKit Emergency Water Storage (bathtub water bladder)
No Cost Emergency Water Storage Options
- Clean old soda bottles and store filtered/boiled water in them.
- You can get drinkable (potable) water from your hot water tank. (Be careful if the tank is still hot.)
- Fill bathtubs, sinks and buckets with water.
- A plastic bag lining a garbage can can give you a fast way to store a lot of relatively clean water. This water will need to be run through a filter. (See filtering/purification options below).
Alternate Water Sources
- Add a hand pump shallow or deep well water pump (some can work with existing wells)
- Ponds, lakes and streams are okay water sources to flush a toilet, but remember to consider them contaminated. Filter, boil or otherwise clean the water before you drink it.
Water Filters and Purifiers
Either the Big Berkey and Crown Berkey are excellent. Each individual Black Berkey Water filter will last up to 3000 gallons and the Big Berkey uses up to 4 filters and the Crown uses up to 8 filters. The Black Berkey Elements remove 99.999% of viruses, 99.9999% of pathogenic bacteria, chlorine, volatile organic compounds including pesticides and herbicides, and 95% of most heavy metals. We have the Big Berkey in our kitchen.
- The 2 gallon Big Berkey 99.999% with 6 (3 packs) filters will filter 7 gal per hour with all 4 filters. Note: You need 6 extra filters, to add 2 and still have 4 left as replacements.
- 6 gallon Crown Berkey 99.999% and 12 (6 packs) filters will filter 14 gal per hour with all 8 filters. Note: You need 12 extra filters, to add 4 and still have 8 left as replacements.
Other larger options for emergency filtration include:
- the Lifestraw Family which is another great emergency filtration option
- the Katadyn TRK Drip Gravidyn 99.999% water filter
- or the Platypus bag filter
- Countertop Distiller will purify water but requires power
- Potable Aqua™ Iodine Purification Tablets can be used on questionable water to kill bacteria
You can use a solar cooker to pasteurize drinking water, which will kill bacteria. (Note: Pasteurization does not get rid of other contaminants, so a quality filter is still recommended.) The Sun Oven Dehydrating and Preparedness package comes with water pasteurizing indicators to show when your water is pasteurized.
Common Sense Homesteading readers can use the code “Commonsense” to get a $70 discount on their Sun Oven Preparedness and Dehydration Package. Retail price is $399, reader price $329. Visit http://sunoven.com/commonsense and use coupon code “Commonsense” at checkout.
See “What’s the Best Solar Cooker? Choosing the Right Unit for Your Cooking Style” for more information on the Sun Oven and other solar cookers.
What's the Best Way to Store Water?
I recommend two tiers of storage – “Use First, Best Quality” and “Use as Needed Reserve”. Commercially packaged, unopened containers will have the best shelf life, but clean home stored water that is hygienically packaged comes very close.
Short term Storage
Bottled water and boxed water storage kits may be one of the easiest options to use. Another option is the basic (empty) 25-Gallon Boxed Water Kit from Emergency Essentials includes five heavy-duty box (stackable up to three high to save space) each with its own metalized five-gallon water storage bag with pour spout. Food grade buckets are also very sturdy and stackable.
Other no-cost options are to: fill bath tubs, large utility sinks and garden tubs or buckets can be filled for short term storage. Note these will need to be filtered and/or boiled for consumption/food use.
Secondary Water Storage
Larger quantities of water can be stored in barrels (such as rain barrels), cisterns, swimming pools, and underground storage tanks. Don't count on your waterbed, as the material the waterbed is made of is loaded with antibacterial chemicals and such.
See also “How to Build a Rain Barrel“.
Where to Store Water?
Ideally, your storage barrels should be kept in a cool, dark location to extend shelf life and barrel life, out of direct sunlight (especially soda bottles). Water containers should not be in direct contact with cement. We use 2x4s or wood pallets to keep much of our storage off the concrete floor. Be sure to date your storage containers so you know when they were filled. Ideally, your water should be rotated yearly, but sterile water in a sterile container can keep pretty much indefinitely. (It just won't be particularly tasty.)
See “Preparedness Storage – Finding Room and Keeping it Safe and Sound” for more ideas.
Preparing Water for Storage
If you are using normal tap water for long term storage, it should be treated prior to storage to prevent the growth of bacteria. Three Options
Filter Water – Distill the water, use a Berkey 99.999% filter or use RO water – each provides purified water that can be put directly into storage. To improve the “flat” taste of packaged water, shake or agitate to introduce oxygen to the water. If you are using distilled or RO water, you may also want to use remineralizing drops to add trace minerals back into the water.
Bleach – use 8 drops standard bleach (avoid scented, “color safe” bleach or any with added cleaners) per gallon of clear water, mix and let stand 20 minutes. It should still have a faint bleach odor. Bleach loses potency with age, so you should rotate your bleach yearly. Double the amount of bleach if your bleach is over a year old. Note: Bleach may react with some plastic containers.
Heat – Boil water vigorously for 3 minutes, then allow to cool before packaging. Alternatively, you may process mason jars of water with one half inch head space in a water bath canner or pressure canner. To pressure can, process at 10 psi for five minutes. To water bath can, process quarts 20 minutes and half-gallons for 25 minutes. Canned water will last for years, but presents risks in earthquake prone areas or it your storage area is likely to be hit with flying debris.
Best Water Storage Containers
While just about any water tight container can be used for storage, keep in mind that any leftover food particles or other materials left in the container are potential sources of contamination. If you recycle, you've probably come across food containers in the recycling container that had been rinsed before disposal, but still end up stinking. Our first recommendation are containers specifically designed for potable (drinking) water storage. We have the Water Brick storage containers. They are sturdy and easy to stack. We also have a setup almost exactly the same as this: 55 gal drinking potable water drum with pump and roller base
Another option is the 7gal Aqua Tainer, it is 15.5” x 11” x 11”.
Alternate Water Storage Containers
FEMA recommends two liter soda bottles. These are good because containers that once held carbonated beverages need to be stronger to compensate for the carbonation, so that works in your favor for storage. If you use them, make sure they are well rinsed because sugar can foul the water long term. Another alternative for the canners out there, is storing water in canning jars.
Water Containers we Don’t Recommend
Milk jugs have gotten thinner and thinner over the years. We don’t recommend them. Even the gallon drinking water contains commonly found in supermarkets will likely fail in storage. Vinegar jugs and bleach jugs are also quite sturdy, but I wouldn't personally use them as a first choice for drinking water.
What Are the Best Ways to Filter/Purify Water?
At times you may be forced to use water of questionable purity, so it's good to know how to make it safe to use. Note: use groundwater rather than surface water when possible, to take advantage of the filtration offered by the soil itself. Freshly collected rainwater is also a better option than standing surface water. If you must use surface water, avoid water with debris and foul odors if at all possible.
- Filtering – running water through mechanical or gravity driven filtration
- Boiling – Boiling water vigorously for 1 minutes will kill bacteria, 3 minutes will kill most other harmful microorganisms. Double this time for each 5000 feet of altitude and/or if the water is dirty. Boiling will drive of some chemicals, but not all, and doesn't clear out the chunks. Run it through a sediment filter (even a clean t-shirt or handkerchief will do) to remove particulates.
- Chemical disinfection – Chlorine and Iodine are used to sterilize water.
Chemical Disinfection Options
Iodine has been found to be very effective against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa with the exception of cryptosporidium. Using iodine has some drawbacks. The colder the water you wish to disinfect, the more required time is needed for disinfecting. Because iodine is absorbed into dirt and debris, which is found in water, its purification dosage varies.
Mechanical filters physically strain some impurities from water. They can be as low tech as draining water through sand or clay, or as high tech as a ceramic microfilter combined with an ion-exchange resin bed. The best filter for your needs depends on your situation.
Ceramic elements (most expensive, most durable, and maintainable) have the smallest pore size (0.1-0.5 microns) and are used by some of the leading portable water filtering companies in the world. Portable ceramic filters boast an impressive list of long-term users, such as: International Red Cross, World Health Organization, Armed Forces (USA, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, and US Navy Seals), United Nations, and the FBI. Ceramic elements can filter only free floating particulates and microorganisms. They do not remove chemicals, poor tastes, odors, or pollutants.
We purchased a Big Berkey and a number of years ago with ceramic filters. They effectively remove the “off” smell and taste from our well water. A simple “straw” type filter (lifestaw) might be a handy addition to a bug out bag or for camping use. We will probably add a Katadyn Pocket Water Filter (also with ceramic elements) to have on hand for filtering larger quantities/filtering on the move. Ceramic filters are a bigger investment, but they have the longest life and are most durable. (For instance, the Pocket Katadyn Filter is rated for 13,000 gallons.)
Other filtration/purification options include distilling (such as solar stills), ultraviolet light, ozone, reverse osmosis filters, and colloidal silver, but these may be difficult to use and unreliable in an emergency situation. In a pinch, you can also filter water through fabric. Natural fabrics such as silk, cotton or even burlap work better than synthetic fabrics. The synthetic fibers have much smoother surfaces, which do not trap contaminants well. For more on using fabric filters, see 3 Emergency Water Filtration Options to Get the Funky Chunks Out.
Other Things to Consider
If you have pets or livestock, do you have a plan for water for your animals? For those with a private well, did you consider a backup manual pump? If there is nearby water (pond/lake/stream), how will you transport it? Do you have backup power for your septic and well water if you are in the suburbs or county? You might want to rinse with fresh after bathing in a lake, stream or pond.
We won't go into all the details, but remember if your sewer/septic system is still functional but you don't have clean water, use dirty water to flush such as: old water from sink, old bath water etc. Don't pour drinkable water down a toilet when you can't get it easily. Consider another emergency option the DIY portable toilet. Also in an emergency you probably don't want to waste water bathing, so buy a bunch of the no rinse bath towels/wipes as an alternative, to allow you some cleanup.
I hope you've found this post useful, and will make sure that you and your loved ones have enough water on hand should an emergency strike. Please share if you're so inclined, and let me know if you have any comments or questions. You can view more every day preparedness posts on the Common Sense Preparedness page