Sometimes in life we have to deal with things that are less than pleasant – dirty laundry, patching up wounds, pet messes – let’s face it, moms cope with a lot of messy situations. Talking about bodily functions doesn’t generally make for polite conversation. Judging by the stunning array of constipation medications available at the drugstore, maybe we do need to talk about healthy bowel movements. (I was looking for ipecac syrup, which they no longer carry, to keep in our emergency medical kit.)
So, what constitutes a “normal” bowel movement?
Believe it or not, some scientists in England (Bristol, to be precise), came up with a chart to describe the range of typical bowel movements. The following is a summary of the chart based on information from www.gutsense.org. I encourage you to visit their site if you want more details or have specific concerns, or to speak with a qualified health care professional.
Type 1: Separate hard lumps, like nuts
These stools lack a normal amorphous quality, because bacteria are missing and there is nothing to retain water. The lumps are hard and abrasive, the typical diameter ranges from 1 to 2 cm (0.4–0.8”), and they’re painful to pass, because the lumps are hard and scratchy. Typical for post-antibiotic treatments and for people attempting fiber-free, meat and fat heavy (low-carb) diets. Flatulence isn’t likely, because fermentation of fiber isn’t taking place.
Type 2: Sausage-like but lumpy
Represents a combination of Type 1 stools impacted into a single mass and lumped together by fiber components and some bacteria. Typical for organic constipation. The diameter is 3 to 4 cm (1.2–1.6”). This type is the most destructive by far because its size is near or exceeds the maximum opening of the anal canal’s aperture (3.5 cm). It’s bound to cause extreme straining during elimination, and most likely to cause anal canal laceration, hemorrhoidal prolapse, or diverticulosis. To attain this form, the stools must be in the colon for at least several weeks instead of the normal 72 hours. Adding supplemental fiber to expel these stools is dangerous, because the expanded fiber has no place to go, and may cause hernia, obstruction, or perforation of the small and large intestine alike.
Type 3: Like a sausage but with cracks in the surface
This form has all of the characteristics of Type 2 stools, but the transit time is faster, between one and two weeks. Typical for latent constipation. The diameter is 2 to 3.5 cm (0.8–1.4”). Irritable bowel syndrome is likely. Flatulence is minor, because of disbacteriosis. The fact that it hasn’t became as enlarged as Type 2 suggests that the defecations are regular. Straining is required. All of the adverse effects typical for Type 2 stools are likely for type 3, especially the rapid deterioration of hemorrhoidal disease.
Type 4: Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft
This form is normal for someone defecating once daily. The diameter is 1 to 2 cm (0.4–0.8”). The larger diameter suggests a longer transit time or a large amount of dietary fiber in the diet.
Type 5: soft blobs with clear-cut edges
The authors of www.gutsense.org consider this form ideal. It is typical for a person who has stools twice or three times daily, after major meals. The diameter is 1 to 1.5 cm (0.4–0.6”). *Note – many other sites list 4 and 5 as preferred shapes.
Type 6: Fluffy pieces with ragged edges, a mushy stool
These kind of stools may suggest a slightly hyperactive colon (fast motility), excess dietary potassium, or sudden dehydration or spike in blood pressure related to stress (both cause the rapid release of water and potassium from blood plasma into the intestinal cavity). It can also indicate a hypersensitive personality prone to stress, too many spices, drinking water with a high mineral content, or the use of osmotic (mineral salts) laxatives.
Type 7: Watery, no solid pieces
This, of course, is diarrhea. It’s typical for people (especially young children and infirm or convalescing adults) affected by fecal impaction—a condition that follows or accompanies type 1 stools. During paradoxical diarrhea the liquid contents of the small intestine (up to 1.5–2 liters/quarts daily) have no place to go but down, because the large intestine is stuffed with impacted stools throughout its entire length. Some water gets absorbed, the rest accumulates in the rectum. The reason this type of diarrhea is called paradoxical is not because its nature isn’t known or understood, but because being severely constipated and experiencing diarrhea all at once, is, indeed, a paradoxical situation. Unfortunately, it’s all too common.
We are bombarded with advertisements for FIBER! FIBER! FIBER! – like a fiber pill or glass of fiber drink – but is a large amount of fiber the real solution we’re looking for? Based on personal experience, I’d have to say, “no”. I’ve read some articles that say that large amounts of fiber can actually make bowel problems worse, depending on your situation (such as #2 poop problems from the chart). We need to look at the colon as not only a part of your digestive system, but part of the body as a whole. Did you know that an under active thyroid can contribute to constipation? And that the gastrocolic reflex (the urge to poop) typically weakens as we age?
I (unfortunately) found this information out first hand when my thyroid became sluggish. The good news is that by changing my diet, I am now happily in the 4-5 range. Here are some of the changes I’ve made during the last year or so that have helped me.
6 Tips for Better Bowel Movements
1) Eat plenty of coconut oil and other high quality saturated fats.
2) Eat plenty of veggies, including green and leafies, and moderate amounts of fruit
I’ve been eating less fruit lately since I am cutting back on carbs, but I do make sure to get plenty of plant material each day. Plants provide a good ratio of fiber to water that is generally easy on the digestive system. Many plants are high in soluble fiber, which swells and bulks up the stool for easy transit, and insoluble fiber, which acts somewhat like a “broom” to “sweep” the colon clear.
3) Stay hydrated
I’m not fanatical about how much water I drink. I think the eight glasses a day recommendation seems a little over the top, unless you’re in a situation where you’re sweating heavily. Realistically, would our ancestors have consumed that much fresh water daily? I think it’s unlikely. That said, I think most of us have a higher toxin load from our environments, so we want to keep things moving through our systems. Don’t skimp on the water.
4) Eat and drink plenty of probiotic foods and beverages
As we age, our bodies naturally produce less digestive enzymes. Our digestive systems slow down (and sometimes even stop – not good). Live culture foods and drinks like sauerkraut, kimchi, fermented salsas and chutneys, kombucha, kefir, and kvass all help “jump start” your digestive system and often contribute to the healing of many digestive ailments. Don’t know what some of those foods are or want to learn how to make them at home? Visit the Live Culture Foods Section of the recipe page. Want to learn a lot more? Check out Enzyme Nutrition and/or Enzymes & Enzyme Therapy : How to Jump-Start Your Way to Lifelong Good Health.
5) Avoid highly processed foods
When the boys were younger, we did a little homeschool science experiment where we took samples of different foods and subjected them to “digestive forces”. We soaked them in vinegar, “smushed” them in a plastic bag, and finally forced them through on old nylon stocking. The foods we examined were a piece of meat, a piece of apple, some celery, some oatmeal, and saltine crackers. When we got to the saltine crackers, they basically coated the inside of the stocking like glue. The same thing happens in your guts. Highly processed foods lack “bulk” in the form of soluble and insoluble fiber. They are also typically quite dry, so they can be easily compressed in your guts, forming hard, dense bowel movements.
6) Try squatting
Squatting is the natural position for making a bowel movement, because it helps your guts to line up correctly to pass stool more easily. This can be accomplished with lower toilets, or through the use of a simple step like the Squatty Potty®, pictured below.
So the next time you visit the bathroom, take a peek at what’s going on before you flush. If you’re not in the 4-5 range, you may want to consider making some changes in your diet.
You may also enjoy other posts in the Natural Health series.